Abdel Fattah Saeed Hussein Khalil el-Sisi
commonly known as Sisi, is the sixth and incumbent President of Egypt, in office since June 2014. Sisi was born in Cairo and after joining the military, held a post in Saudi Arabia before enrolling in the Egyptian Army's Command and Staff College. In 1992 Sisi trained at the Joint Services Command and Staff College in the United Kingdom, and then in 2006 trained at the United States Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Sisi served as a mechanized infantry commander and then as directory of military intelligence. After the Egyptian revolution of 2011 and election of Mohamed Morsi to the Egyptian presidency, Sisi was named head of the armed forces. As chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces, Sisi launched the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état that removed President Morsi from office in the aftermath of the June 2013 Egyptian protests. Two months later, troops loyal to Sisi began a bloody crackdown against pro-Morsi protestors and dissidents that left 1,400 dead and 16,000 detained. In the wake of violence, Sisi installed an interim government, but remained Egypt's Minister of Defence and assumed the role of the country's First Deputy Prime Minister. On 26 March 2014 he resigned from his military post, announcing that he would run as a candidate in the 2014 presidential election. The election, held between 26 and 28 May and which included only one opponent, was boycotted by most political parties and the Muslim Brotherhood, and resulted in Sisi winning the presidency with more than 93% of the vote. Sisi was sworn into office as President of Egypt on 8 June 2014.
Early life and military education
El-Sisi was born in Gamaleya in Old Cairo on 19 November 1954, to parents Said Hussein Khalili al-Sisi and Soad Ibrahim Mohamed Al Shishi. He grew up in Gamaleya, near the al-Azhar Mosque, in a quarter where Muslims, Jews and Christians resided and in which he later recalled how, during his childhood, he heard church bells and watched Jews flock to the synagogue unhindered. Sisi would later enroll in the Egyptian Military Academy, and upon graduating he held various command positions in the Egyptian Armed Forces and served as Egypt's military attaché in Riyadh. In 1987 he attended the Egyptian Command and Staff College. In 1992 he continued his military career by enrolling in the British Command and Staff College, and in 2006 enrolled in the United States Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Sisi was the youngest member of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, serving as the director of military intelligence and reconnaissance department. He was later chosen to replace Mohamed Hussein Tantawi and serve as the commander-in-chief and Minister of Defence and Military Production on 12 August 2012. Sisi's family originated from Monufia Governorate. He is the second of eight siblings (his father later had six additional children with a second wife). His father, a conservative but not radical Muslim, had a wooden antiques shop for tourists in the historic bazaar of Khan el-Khalili. He and his siblings would study at the nearby library at al-Azhar University. Unlike his brothers – one of whom is a senior judge, another a civil servant – el-Sisi went to a local army-run secondary school, where concurrently his relationship with his maternal cousin Entissar Amer started to develop. They were married upon el-Sisi's graduation from the Egyptian Military Academy in 1977. He attended the following courses:
Military career, 1977–2014
El-Sisi received his commission as a military officer in 1977 serving in the mechanised infantry, specialising in anti-tank warfare and mortar warfare. He became Commander of the Northern Military Region-Alexandria in 2008 and then Director of Military Intelligence and Reconnaissance. El-Sisi was the youngest member of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces of Egypt. While a member of the Supreme Council, he made controversial statements regarding allegations that Egyptian soldiers had subjected detained female demonstrators to forced virginity tests. He is reported to have told Egypt's state-owned newspaper that "the virginity-test procedure was done to protect the girls from rape as well as to protect the soldiers and officers from rape accusations." He was the first member of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces to admit that the invasive tests had been carried out