Mohamed Hosni Mubarak

Mr president Mohamed Hosni Mubarak

Mubarak is a former Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011. Before he entered politics, Mubarak was a career officer in the Egyptian Air Force. He served as its commander from 1972 to 1975 and rose to the rank of air chief marshal in 1973.[1] Some time in the 1950s, he returned to the Air Force Academy as an instructor, remaining there until early 1959.[1] He was appointed Vice-President of Egypt by President Anwar Sadat in 1975 and assumed the presidency on 14 October 1981, eight days after Sadat's assassination.[citation needed] Mubarak's presidency lasted almost thirty years, making him Egypt's longest-serving ruler since Muhammad Ali Pasha, who ruled the country from 1805 to 1848, a reign of 43 years.[2] Mubarak stepped down after 18 days of demonstrations during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011.[3] On 11 February 2011, Vice President Omar Suleiman announced that Mubarak had resigned as president and transferred authority to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces.[4][5] On 13 April 2011, a prosecutor ordered Mubarak and both of his sons (Alaa and Gamal) to be detained for 15 days of questioning about allegations of corruption and abuse of power.[6] Mubarak was then ordered to stand trial on charges of negligence for failing to halt the killing of peaceful protesters during the revolution.[7] These trials began on 3 August 2011.[8] On 2 June 2012, an Egyptian court sentenced Mubarak to life imprisonment. After sentencing, he was reported to have suffered a series of health crises. On 13 January 2013, Egypt's Court of Cassation (the nation's high court of appeal) overturned Mubarak's sentence and ordered a retrial.[9] On retrial, Mubarak and his sons were convicted on 9 May 2015 of corruption and given prison sentences.[10] Mubarak is detained in a military hospital and his sons were freed 12 October 2015 by a Cairo court.